Joining Technologies for Metals


Prof. D K Dwivedi

IIT Roorkee

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SKU: IIT Roorkee Category:


It is proposed to include following joining technologies of commercial importance under different groups of processes
A) Fundamentals of Metal Joining Technologies: mechanisms for obtaining metallic continuity: fusion, deformation, diffusion, chemical interactions
B) Fusion based processes: principle of fusion welding processes, oxy-fuel has welding, common arc welding processes, laser beam welding, spot welding processes, newer variants of fusion welding processes
C) Solid-liquid joining processes: brazing and soldering, braze welding, cold metal transfer welding,
D) Solid state joining processes: diffusion bonding, ultrasonic welding and explosive welding and
E) Adhesive joining: design, procedure, and applications
F) Metallurgical Aspects of Welding: weld thermal cycle, solidification of weld metal, weldability of carbon steel, alloys steel, stainless steels, and aluminium alloys, Fe-C, CCT and schaffler diagram for understanding the metallurgical transformation in weld and heat affected zone., basics of residual stresses
G) Common issues related with joining technologies their causes and remedies: hardening and softening of heat affected zone, porosity, cracking.


It is a core course for UG/PG students, practicing engineers.


D K Dwivedi obtained BE (mechanical engineering), in 1993 from GEC Rewa, ME (welding engineering) from Univ. of Roorkee in 1997 and PhD in Met. Engineering from MNIT, Jaipur in 2003. He has about 9 years teaching experience at NIT Hamirpur and 14 years at IIT Roorkee in subjects related with manufacturing at UG level and welding engineering related subjects at PG level. He has published more than 120 research papers in SCI/SCIE indexed journals and undertaken 20 sponsored research and 50 industrial consultancy projects. He has authored two books entitled Production and Properties of Cast Al-Si Alloys with New Age International, New Delhi (2013) and Surface Engineering with Springer, New Delhi (2018).

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Total hours


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1. Join the course
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COURSE ENROLMENT FEE: The Fee for Enrolment is Rs. 2000 + GST

2. Watch Videos+Submit Assignments
After enrolling, learners can watch lectures and learn and follow it up with attempting/answering the assignments given.

3. Get qualified to register for exams
A learner can earn a certificate in the self paced course only by appearing for the online remote proctored exam and to register for this, the learner should get minimum required marks in the assignments as given below:

Assignment score = Score more than 50% in at least 6/8 assignments.
Exam score = 50% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100
Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.”

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The certification exam is conducted online with remote proctoring. Once a learner has become eligible to register for the certification exam, they can choose a slot convenient to them from what is available and pay the exam fee. Schedule of available slot dates/timings for these remote-proctored online examinations will be published and made available to the learners.

EXAM FEE: The remote proctoring exam is optional for a fee of Rs.1500 + GST. An additional fee of Rs.1500 will apply for a non-standard time slot.

5. Results and Certification
After the exam, based on the certification criteria of the course, results will be declared and learners will be notified of the same. A link to download the e-certificate will be shared with learners who pass the certification exam.


Course Details

Week 1: Introduction: Manufacturing and Joining Fundamental Mechanisms of joining, heat and pressure in joining Classification of joining processes,Heat   generation and power density concept in welding Protection of the weld metal approaches, effect of gases on weld properties
Week 2: Principle of fusion welding processes, oxy-fuel gas welding Fundamentals of welding: type of weld, types of joint, welding position, arc heat generation Physics of welding arc: arc initiation, maintenance, shielded metal arc welding Electrode melting rate, effect of electrode  polarity and welding parameters Gas tungsten arc welding: electrode, shielding gases, Introduction of gas metal arc welding
Week 3: Variants of Gas tungsten arc welding: GTAW, Hot wire GTAW, Flux assisted GTAW  Variants of Gas metal arc welding: Pulse GMAW, CMT welding
Submerged arc welding Electro-slag and Electro-gas welding processes Laser beam welding
Week 4: Brazing Soldering and Braze welding, Fundamentals of resistance welding Resistance welding processes: spot, seam welding  Flash butt welding
Week 5: Adhesive joining, Welding bonding, Solid state joining technologies: Fundamentals Ultrasonic joining, Diffusion bonding
Week 6: Explosive welding, Magnetic pulse welding, Weld thermal cycle, Heat affected zone and weld thermal cycle: I,  Heat affected zone and weld thermal cycle: II
Week 7: Solidification of weld metal, Fundamentals of weldability of metals, Weldability of carbon & alloy steels: Fe-C, CCT,  Weldability of stainless steels:  schaeffler diagram, Metallurgical transformation in weld and heat affected zone of steels
Week 8: Weldability of aluminium alloys: porosity, HAZ softening, PMZ issues, Solidification cracking and their control, Residual stresses in weld joints: effect on joint performance, and control of residual stress,   Cracking of welded joints: solidification and liquation cracks, Cracking of welded joint: cold cracking

Books and References

  1. Metals Handbook-Welding, Brazing and Soldering, American Society for Metals, 1993, 10th edition, Volume 6, USA.
  2. Richard Little, Welding and Welding Technology, McGraw Hill, 2001, 1st edition.
  3. H Cary, Welding Technology, Prentice Hall, 1988, 2nd edition.
  4. S V Nadkarni, Modern Arc Welding Technology, Ador Welding Limited, 2010, New Delhi.
  5. R S Parmar, Welding process and technology, Khanna Publisher, New Delhi
  6. Welding handbook, American Welding Society, 1987, 8th edition, volume 1 & 2, USA



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