Remote Sensing Essentials


Prof. Arun K. Saraf

IIT Roorkee

*Additional GST and optional Exam fee are applicable.

SKU: IIT Roorkee Category:


The proposed course provides basic understanding about satellite based Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing technologies. Presently, remote sensing datasets available from various earth orbiting satellites are being used extensively in various domains including in civil engineering, water resources, earth sciences, transportation engineering, navigation etc. Google Earth has further made access to high spatial resolution remote sensing data available to non-experts with great ease. Knowledge of Digital Image Processing of satellite data allows to process raw satellite images for various applications.


Under- / Post-graduate engineering and post graduate science students / PhD candidates


Remote Sensing / Geoinformatics companies, e.g NIIT, ESRI India, Leica Geoinformatics, MapmyIndia etc


ONGC, OIL, GSI and others


Dr. Arun K. Saraf is Ph. D. (Remote Sensing) from University of Dundee, United Kingdom. Presently he is working as Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, and teaches courses on Remote Sensing, Digital Image Processing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Advanced GIS, Geomorphology, Geohydrology etc. to under- and post-graduate students of Geological Technology and Applied Geology. He was also Head of Department of Earth Sciences between Jan. 2012 Feb. 2015. He was first in the country to introduce GIS course to post-graduate students in the year 1990. In 1986, he was awarded National Fellowship to Study Abroad by Govt. of India for his doctoral degree. Further, in 1993 he was awarded Indo-US S&T Fellowship and worked in Goddard Space Flight Centre, NASA, USA for Post-Doctoral Research. He has been also awarded National Remote Sensing Award- 2001 by Indian Society of Remote Sensing and GIS Professional of the Year Award-2001 by Map India 2002 for his outstanding research contributions in the fields of Remote Sensing and GIS. Earlier, he has also been given several Khosla Research Awards and Prizes by then University of Roorkee. So far Prof. Saraf has published more than 100 research papers in journals of repute (ISI) and supervised 11 Ph.Ds. He was also Associate Editor of International Journal of Remote Sensing during 2003-2015. Through funding from DST, Min. of Earth Sciences, CSIR, Prof. Saraf has been able to establish and operating NOAA-HRPT Satellite Earth Station at IITR since Oct. 2002, first in any educational institute in the country. This Earth Station is still operational and acquiring data from NOAA-18 & 19 day-and-night. In recent past, Prof. Saraf has also recorded four courses viz. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Digital Image Processing of Satellite Data, Digital Elevation Models and Applications and Global Navigation Satellite Systems under the NPTEL scheme.

Additional information



Total hours


Certification Process

1. Join the course
Learners may pay the applicable fees and enrol to a course on offer in the portal and get access to all of its contents including assignments. Validity of enrolment, which includes access to the videos and other learning material and attempting the assignments, will be mentioned on the course. Learner has to complete the assignments and get the minimum required marks to be eligible for the certification exam within this period.

COURSE ENROLMENT FEE: The Fee for Enrolment is Rs. 3000 + GST

2. Watch Videos+Submit Assignments
After enrolling, learners can watch lectures and learn and follow it up with attempting/answering the assignments given.

3. Get qualified to register for exams
A learner can earn a certificate in the self paced course only by appearing for the online remote proctored exam and to register for this, the learner should get minimum required marks in the assignments as given below:

Assignment score = Score more than 50% in at least 9/12 assignments.
Exam score = 50% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100
Only the e-certificate will be made available. Hard copies will not be dispatched.”

4. Register for exams
The certification exam is conducted online with remote proctoring. Once a learner has become eligible to register for the certification exam, they can choose a slot convenient to them from what is available and pay the exam fee. Schedule of available slot dates/timings for these remote-proctored online examinations will be published and made available to the learners.

EXAM FEE: The remote proctoring exam is optional for a fee of Rs.1500 + GST. An additional fee of Rs.1500 will apply for a non-standard time slot.

5. Results and Certification
After the exam, based on the certification criteria of the course, results will be declared and learners will be notified of the same. A link to download the e-certificate will be shared with learners who pass the certification exam.


Course Details

Week 1   :
Rudiments of remote sensing and advantages,
Historical Perspective of development of remote sensing technology,
EM spectrum, solar reflection and thermal emission,
Interaction of EM radiation with atmosphere including atmospheric scattering, absorption and emission,
Interaction mechanisms of EM radiation with ground, spectral response curves
Week 2   :
Laws of Radiation and their relevance in Remote Sensing,
Basis of remote sensing image representation,
Various Remote Sensing Platforms,
Multi-spectral scanners and imaging devices,
Significant characteristics of LANDSAT, SPOT, Sentinel sensors
Week 3   :
Prominent characteristics of IRS, Cartosat, ResourceSat sensors,
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle / Drone,
Passive Microwave Remote Sensing,
Image characteristics and different resolutions in Remote Sensing,
Different techniques of Image acquisition
Week 4   :
Importance of digital image processing,
Digital Image Processing Software,
Basic image enhancement techniques,
Colour representations and transforms,
Image Histograms and statistics
Week 5   :
Atmospheric errors and corrections,
Georeferencing Technique,
Digital Image Processing Software – Demonstration-1,
Image enhancement techniques –I,
Image enhancement techniques –II
Week 6   :
Digital Image Processing Software – Demonstration-2,
Spatial Filtering Techniques, Band rationing and PCA,
Frequency Doman Fourier Transformation,
Digital Image Processing Software – Demonstration-3,
Unsupervised image classification and density slicing techniques
Week 7   :
Supervised image classification techniques and limitations
Digital Image Processing Software – Demonstration-4
LiDAR Technique and applications
Mosaicking, subsets, sub-sampling techniques and applications,
False Topographic Phenomena and correction techniques-01
Week 8   :
False Topographic Phenomena and correction techniques-02,
High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images and limitations,
Basic Image Compression techniques and different image file formats,
Hyperspectral Remote Sensing,
Digital Image vs Digital Photograph
Week 9   :
NDVI and other indices,
Active Microwave Remote Sensing-01,
Active Microwave Remote Sensing-02,
Radar Images interpretation and applications,
SAR Interferometry (InSAR) Technique-01
Week 10 :
SAR Interferometry (InSAR) Technique-02,
Principles of image interpretation,
Image interpretation of different geological landforms, rock types and structures,
Remote Sensing of Moon and Mars,
Google Earth and its Applications
Week 11 :
Integrated applications of RS and GIS in groundwater studies-01,
Integrated applications of RS and GIS in groundwater studies-02,
Applications of Remote Sensing in Earthquake Studies-01,
Applications of Remote Sensing in Earthquake Studies-02
Week 12 :
Different sources of free satellite images,
Limitations of Remote Sensing Techniques

Books and References

1. Introduction to Remote Sensing”, (5th Ed.), The Guildford Press, New York, 2012.
2. Lillesand, T.M., Kiefer, R.W. and Chapman, J.W., “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation”, (5th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
3. Gupta, R. P., “Remote Sensing Geology”, 2nd Ed., Springer, 2003.
4. Drury, S. A., “Image Interpretation in Geology”, 2nd Ed, Allen & Unwin, 1993.
5. Cracknell, A.P., “Introduction to Remote Sensing”, (2nd Ed.), Tylor & Francis, London, 1991.
6. Gonzalez, Rafael C. and Richard E. Woods “Digital Image Processing”, (3rd Edition) Pearson Education, London.


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